Spain History

Spain has 85% of the Iberian peninsula, with whom he went to Portugal in the south-west Europe. Africa is less than 10 miles (16 km) south on the road of Gibraltar. A vast central plateau of trails in the south and east, crossed by a number of mountain ranges and river valleys. Main rivers are the Ebro, north-east, the Tagus in the central region and the Guadalquivir in the south. From the east coast of Spain in the Mediterranean, the Balearic Islands (1936 square miles, 5014 km ²), the most important thing is to Majorca. Sixty miles (97 km) west of Africa, the Canary Islands (2808 square miles, 7273 km ²).

Parliamentary Monarchy.


The Spain, originally inhabited by the Celts, Iberians and the Basques, was part of the Roman Empire in 206 AD, when it was conquered by Scipio Africanus. In 412 AD, heads barbaric Visigoths Athaulf crossed the Pyrenees and Spain, decided, first of all on behalf of the Roman emperor, and independent. In 711, Muslims Tariq entered into Spain and from Africa in recent

years, sending the country. In 732, the Franks, led by Charles Martel, defeated the Muslims in the vicinity of Poitiers, which allows the further expansion of Islam in Southeastern Europe. The internal discord to Islam Spanish, a constant of the Christian conquest of the north.

Aragon and Castile Spain were the main states of the 12th century to 15, by the marriage of Ferdinand II and Isabella I 1469th In 1478, they founded the Inquisition, the eradication of heresy and detection of Jews and Muslims , Was not openly converted to Christianity.

Torquemada, the most experienced great inquisitors, epitomized the Inquisition of the harshness and cruelty. The last Muslim stronghold, Grenada, he was taken prisoner in 1492 The Catholic Church has been regarded as official state religion and most Jews (1492) and Muslims (1502) have been displaced. In the era of exploration, discovery and colonization, Spain Galantamin enormous wealth and a large colonial empire by conquest of Mexico by Cortes (1519-1521) and Peru by Pizarro (1532-15

33). The Spanish Hapsburg monarchy was at one time the world's most powerful. In 1588, Philip II sent his unbesiegbare Armada to conquer England, but the costs of destruction from Spain to its hegemony over the seas and paved the way for Angleterre's colonization of America. Spain has decreased, then quickly on the status of a second-rate power under the reign of the Hapsburg kings weak, and he never again an important role in European politics. The War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714) in Spain has resulted in the loss of Belgium, Luxembourg, Milan, Naples and Sardinia. Its colonial empire in America and the Philippines, disappeared in wars and revolutions of the 18th century and 19.

In World War I, Spain to maintain a position of neutrality. In 1923, General Miguel Primo de Rivera was a dictator. In 1930, King Alfonso XIII to withdraw from the dictatorship, but a strong antimonarchist Republican Movement and led to its withdrawal from Spain in 1931. The new Constitution, Spain declares a worker "Republic, which has large land, separated Church and state, and secular schools. The elections of 1936 reached a strong majority of the Popular Front, as President by Manuel Azaña.

On 18 July 1936, a con
servative leader in Morocco, Francisco Franco Bahamonde, led a mutiny against the government. The civil war has taken over three years and cost the lives of nearly one million people. Franco was supported by fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, while Soviet Russia helped to ensure that the loyalists. Several hundred Americans left has served in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade on the front page of the Republic. The war ended, as Franco in Madrid on March 28, 1939. Franco was head of state, national commander of the Falange party (the party), and the Prime Minister and Caudillo (guide).

In a referendum during the year 1947, the Spanish people approved a Franco-author compatibility of succession of Spain a monarchy. Franco, but as head of state. In 1969, Franco and the Cortes ( "States"), designated Prince Juan Carlos Alfonso Victor Marie de Bourbon (married Princess Sophie of Greece in 1962) the king of Spain, if the provisional government, headed by Franco the end comes. Franco died on November 20, 1975, and King Juan Carlos was proclaimed November 22

Under pressure from the Catalan and Basque nationalists, Minister-President Adolfo Suarez home usually given to these regions in 1979. Basque separatist terrorists committed hundreds of bombings and kidnappings. With the overwhelming election of Mr. Felipe González Márquez and his Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, October 20, 1982, parliamentary elections, Franco-past was finally buried.

Spain entered NATO in the year 1982. In colla
boration with Portugal, Spain, a member of the European Economic Community, and now the European Union, during the year 1986. The general elections of March 1996, a victory for conservative Partido Popular, and its leader, José María Aznar, Prime Minister. He and his party won easily re-elected in 2000.

In August 2002, Batasuna, the political wing of the basque terrorist organization ETA, was banned. The wisdom of the leadership of the party instead U allow a socket legitimate policy was questioned.

Aznar back cover of the American war in Iraq was very unpopular-90% of Spaniards against war. (Spain does not send troops to Iraq during the war, but has contributed 1,300 tr
oops for peacekeeping during the reconstruction period.) But Aznar's Partido Popular has worked very well in municipal elections in May 2003. The country of relative prosperity and Prime Minister of course is againstETA was thought to be responsible for the strong presence.

On 11 March 2004, Spain suffered its most terrible terrorist attacks: 191 people were killed and 1,400 injured in the bomb attacks were in the station of Madrid.
The Government of the first head of ETA, but soon discovered that evidence of al-Qaida was responsible. In the case of a record result of the electorate went to the polls days later, Aznar's Popular Party experienced a defeat stung, and José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero of the Socialist Party was appointed new prime minister. Many Spaniards, Aznar's debt, faithful support of the USA and the war in Iraq for making Spain to al-Qaida goal. Others were irritated by what they saw as the government's position was politically motivated, that the responsibility of ETA attacks at the same time as links to al-Qaeda has been in gestation. The April, a dozen suspects, mostly Moroccans, were arrested for the bombings. On 4 April asleep several suspects during a raid of the police to avoid. In May, the new prime minister, a good piece of his campaign promise, recalling the Espagne's 1,300 soldiers from Iraq, very dissatisfied USA, said Spain was beschwichtigenden terrorists.

In June 2005, despite strong opposition from the Catholic Church, Spain legalized gay marriage. (Three other countries allow homosexual marriage: Belgium, the Netherlands and Canada.)

After four decades of violence, militant basque separatist ETA, responsible for more than 800 dead and terrorize the Spanish society with their bombings and other attacks, announced a cease-fire on March 24, 2006. In June 2007, but ETA abandon the armistice and appreciation to start a new offensive.
In June 2006, a referendum, the region of Catalonia for greater autonomy from Spain.

The government has dissolved Parliament in January 2008 and called new elections. In the elections of March, the Minister Zapatero, President of the Socialist Party was re-elected with 43.7% of votes. Mariano Rajoy of the Partido Popular cutoff of 40.1%. On 12 April Zapatero, announced his cabinet, in which all members has remained unchanged, except for Carme Chacón Piqueras the new minister of defense.

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