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National Radios of Spain (Radio Nacional de España)

Radio Nacional de España (RNE) (National Spain Radios), Spain is the National Public Radio Service. Since 1973 it has been part of the Radio Television Espanola (RTVE), the company responsible for the indirect management of the Spanish public radio and television service and also Television Espanola (TVE).

Origins of RNE
Radio Nacional de España (Spain National Radio) officially came into being in Salamanca, 19 January 1937, at the height of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and was dependent on the recently created Delegación de Estado para Prensa y propaganda (State delegation for the press and propaganda). The Spain station's studios were in the Palacio de Anaya, the seat of the Oficina de Prensa y propaganda (Office for the press and propaganda), whose first directors were also those of RNE (Spain Radios). The first channel of the Telefunken and with an aura of power 20 kW, was a gift from Nazi Germany in the Franco Estado Nuevo.
It was then that the propaganda immense potential of radio was clear and early 14th June 1937, the nationalist RNE radio's Notice. Until then, this distinction was held by Radio de Castilla Burgos, who produced the information and propaganda that all the radio stations that fell into the hands of the nationalist forces were forced to.


During this era and the early years of World War II until the arrival of the Allies in Italy 1943 and the German retreat from Stalingrad, RNE in collaboration with the Axis powers to spread in Spanish news from the official radio stations of Germany and Italy.
RNE after the Spanish Civil War
After the Spanish Civil War had ended, the leader of the victorious nationalist forces General Francisco Franco passed an order on 6 October 1939 under the private radio broadcasts of the official censorship by the political party of the state, FET y de las JONS and the RNE also granted exclusive rights to the news bulletin service.

As a consequence of this order, all broadcasters (public and private) had to connect with RNE to transfer the daily news broadcasts, the official radio channel produced. These newscasts, usually broadcast at noon and then again in the evening, were known as el parte (The [news] report or bulletin), and had a militaristic tone.

Apart from these official broadcasts, the only other sources of information available Spaniards were the Spanish language bulletin, the BBC and Radio France International, and radio España Independiente (Independent Spain Radio), was a radio station by the Communist Party that Spain had its headquarters in Moscow (though it was known as La Pyrenean because he thought to broadcast from somewhere in the Pyrenees).
Although from the time of the civil war it had already foreign broadcasts in different languages, it was not until April 1945, that the installation of the key short-wave stations in Arganda del Rey (Madrid) would broadcast 40 kW of power, which was very strong for this Period. Foreign radio thus acquired a great importance, with transfers (in Spanish as much as in English) are mainly in America.

It was from that moment that the slow journey from the Spanish public broadcasting began, motivated by the poor quality of the media and the international block on the other hand, the disabled, until 1955 with the entry RNE in the European Broadcasting Union Union.
The end of the 1950s and early 1960s saw the introduction of advanced technologies such as frequency modulation (FM) and transfers in stereo. A parallel commercial station, Radio Peninsula, has also been created.
The development of RNE (National Spain Radios) during the 1960s and 1970s
The year 1964 saw the first major restructuring of Radio National. A network of regional broadcasting center provided strong short-wave transmissions, with an aura of power between 250 kW and 500 kW, enabled the cover on the entire territory and under certain conditions, a good part of Europe. These centers are usually emit the same signal that the central studios in Madrid, but there were also local studios to broadcast information to the areas in hourly intervals.
In November 1965 a second channel out that was sent through a network of FM transmitters. Dedicated mostly to the music, this channel used the superior quality that it was through this kind of transmission. (The channel is now known as Radio Clásica).


In 1971, RNE opened a new short wave broadcasting center for shipments abroad. This new center, which greatly exceeded that of Arganda del Rey, was in the city Noblejas in the province of Toledo. The Foreign and television was the subject of a complex redevelopment in 1975, the strengthening of the transfer to the Spaniard in the world and withdrawal of transfers in Slavic languages by the Iron Curtain.


The democratic era
The arrival of democracy in Spain following the death of Franco in 1975 a number of changes. One of these was the end, on 25 October 1977, by the private broadcasters' commitment to connect with RNE (National Spain Radios) for the transfer of daily news broadcasts. From then on, each channel freely determine the content of their own newscasts.

Until the late 1970s, the consignments of Tercer Programa (RNE 3), which until then were only in Madrid, in Spain. RNE 3 (Spain Radio) offered educational and cultural programming, was enlarged to programs on musical topics.
During the Franco dictatorship a number of semi-official radio stations (autorizadas) had worked in parallel with the private broadcasters and RNE, and belonged to organizations such as the Confederacion Nacional de Sindicatos (National Confederation of Trade Unions), Movimiento, and Organization Juvenil (The youth organization).

These stations were dissolved in 1981 and its transmitters in Spanish radio Cadena (Spanish radio channel). Some of the stations had to be abandoned because their frequencies were not included in those assigned to Spain in the international agreements on the allocation of radio spectrum.


RNE (National Spain Radios) today In 1989, Radio Cadena Nacional Española and radio were combined to make the current format of six thematic radio channels:


Radio 1 - Channel generalist with a broad range of mostly speech-based programming.
Radio Clsica - (formerly Radio 2) - and classical music concerts in general.
Radio 3 - RNE's "young station" which refers to Pop, Rock, World Music, folk, and allied cultural events.
Radio 4 - regional broadcasting in the Catalan language.
Radio 5 Todo Noticias - 24-hour news.
• Radio Exterior de España - International Broadcasting Service on short wave, has an audience of 80 million listeners (only surpassed by the BBC and Radio Vatican). This station is also in the DAB for Spain and satellite.
These stations are also available online at and via pod cast (see External Links below).


Integrated in the state of public broadcasting corporation RTVE (Radio Television Espanola) in 1973, RNE today has been assigned the role of "Public Radio service, which is an essential service for the community and the cohesion of the democratic society".
Unlike its sister television broadcasting organization, TVE, Radio National is fully financed by public funds and no air in their advertising programming.

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